PRIDE Foundation Malaysia My Blog What is Cancer? Understanding the Basics

What is Cancer? Understanding the Basics


Cancer Cells

Cancer is a word we often hear, but what does it actually mean? In simple terms, cancer refers to a group of diseases wherein cells divide and grow uncontrollably, forming abnormal masses or tumors. These tumors can invade and damage nearby tissues and can also spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. As cancer affects millions of people worldwide, understanding its basics can help us empower ourselves and support those in need.

Unveiling the Mysteries of Cancer Cells

To delve into the world of cancer, we need to understand cancer cells. Our bodies are made up of billions of cells that continuously divide, grow, and replace each other in an orderly manner. But sometimes, the instructions that govern this process become damaged or altered, resulting in uncontrolled cell growth.

Cancer cells are unique in various ways. Firstly, they ignore normal signals that dictate when cells should divide, leading to rapid and abnormal growth. Secondly, cancer cells can invade nearby tissues, causing further harm. Additionally, these cells can break away from their original site and spread to distant parts of the body. This process, called metastasis, is a major contributor to the complexity and danger of cancer.

Understanding Different Types of Cancer

Cancer can occur in almost any part of the body, which is why there are various types of cancer. Some well-known types include breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and colorectal cancer. Each type originates from different cells and may require distinct treatment approaches.

While some cancers are more prevalent among specific genders, ages, or populations, cancer does not discriminate. It affects people of all backgrounds, ages, and ethnicities. Some genetic factors can increase the risk of developing certain cancers, while environmental factors such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet, exposure to radiation or chemicals, and infections may also play a role.

The Signs and Symptoms

Detecting cancer early is crucial for successful treatment, but identifying the signs and symptoms can sometimes be challenging. While there are numerous types of cancer—and each has its unique set of signs—common symptoms include:

  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Persistent pain
  • Changes in the skin, such as darkening, yellowing, redness, or excessive hair growth
  • Changes in bowel or bladder habits
  • Difficulty swallowing or persistent indigestion
  • Thickening or lumps in the breast or other parts of the body
  • Persistent cough or difficulty breathing

If you experience any of these symptoms persistently, it is essential to consult a healthcare professional who can assess your condition and provide appropriate advice.

Diving into the Depths of Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosing cancer typically involves various methods, including physical examination, medical history review, imaging tests (X-ray, MRI, CT scan), laboratory tests (blood, urine, and tissue sample analysis), and biopsies (removal of a sample for further examination).

Once a diagnosis is confirmed, treatment options are determined based on the type, stage, and location of the cancer, as well as the patient’s overall health. Common treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, hormone therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

It is important to note that treatment plans are tailored to the individual, and a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals collaborates to ensure the best possible outcome for each patient.

Dealing with Emotions and Supporting Loved Ones

A cancer diagnosis can be emotionally taxing for patients and their loved ones. Feelings of fear, sadness, anger, and uncertainty are common. During this challenging time, it is crucial to seek emotional support, whether from friends, family, support groups, therapists, or counselors. Various organizations and communities also provide resources to help individuals cope with the emotional aspects of cancer.

Supporting a loved one with cancer involves showing empathy, actively listening, and offering practical assistance. Acts of kindness and understanding can go a long way in providing comfort and strength through difficult moments.


Cancer affects countless lives, demanding our attention, compassion, and understanding. By learning about the fundamentals of cancer, we can contribute to raising awareness, promoting early detection, and supporting those impacted by this complex disease. Together, we can strive towards better prevention strategies, improved treatment options, and ultimately, a world where cancer is conquered.


Q1: Is cancer contagious?
A1: No, cancer is not contagious. It cannot be spread from person to person like a cold or flu.

Q2: Can a healthy lifestyle reduce the risk of cancer?
A2: Yes, adopting a healthy lifestyle can reduce the risk of certain cancers. Regular exercise, a balanced diet, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, and protecting yourself from harmful UV rays are among the measures that can lower the risk.

Q3: Are all tumors cancerous?
A3: No, not all tumors are cancerous. Some tumors are benign, which means they are noncancerous and do not spread to other parts of the body. Benign tumors often have distinct boundaries and tend to grow slowly.

Q4: Can cancer be cured?
A4: In many cases, cancer can be treated, managed, or even cured. The outcome depends on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, treatment strategies, and overall health. Early detection greatly increases the chances of successful treatment.

Q5: Are there any alternative or complementary treatments for cancer?
A5: While there are alternative and complementary treatments available, it is important to consult a healthcare professional before considering such approaches. Some methods may be beneficial in conjunction with conventional treatments, but others may have limited scientific evidence or could interfere with standard therapies.